La Direccion de Projectos, como toda area de conocimientos, tiene su propio vocabulario y terminos usados para comunicarse. Aqui se muestro los mas comunes y sus definiciones lo mas sencillamente explicadas.
The Project manager is responsible for the Success of the Project. He is also part of the team members and stakeholders. But he must oversee the project as a whole.
Objectives are concrete statements that describe the things the project is trying to achieve.
dependencies mandatory and discretionary
A design is a clear specification for the structure, organization, appearance, etc. of a deliverable.
More and more solutions require online access so that the client organization can process transactions in real-time...
The Designer is responsible for understanding the business requirements and designing a solution that will meet the business needs.
The people in your organization that are executing your production business processes are doing "operations" work.
Development is the term given to the type of work that is done to build software applications.
Organizations (Staff-Related) vs. Portfolios (Work-Related)
Disaster recovery is a term used to describe the ability to restore your critical business processes in the event of a disaster.
Overhead is a category of work that includes time that is not work related.
Being able to recover critical business applications in the event of a disaster requires a coordinated effort from operations, development, and the business users.
Pareto analysis can be used when you encounter multiple related problems or a common problem with multiple causes.
There are many physical and natural threats to a computer environment.
Per Call Premium
Without the proper structure, there is a tendency for the up-front project definition work on a large project to become very lengthy and unfocused.
Physical Database View
This term describes all of the work that can be prioritized on a backlog.
Many people have experienced frustration after they buy something that needs assembly, only to find that the instructions are vague or wrong.
Acceptance criteria is a quality assurance technique.
Domain modeling is used for process modeling at a high level.
Project Management Office
Your project is getting close to the end. The programmers have unit tested the code, and the entire team has participated in a series of interface and system tests.
The PMO Manager is the person responsible for managing the processes and people within the PMO.
You have all heard this saying (or something similar). It means that you do not take retribution against the person (or people) that deliver bad news.
Draft copies are documents that have been initially completed by the author, but are not yet ready to be considered entirely complete.
An action item is work that requires follow-up execution.
Activation is the process of actually scheduling and executing work throughout the year.
Earned value is a way of measuring progress.
One of the problems with Return on Investment (ROI) is that it can assume that the use of the money for your project is free.
It has been said that the best communicators are actually the best listeners, not the best speakers.
Software Change Management
Sponsor (Executive Sponsor and Project Sponsor)
These are the specific people or groups who have an interest or a partial stake in the
products and services an organization provides.
The term “solutions” is used to generically refer to the main client deliverables produced by any project.
Activities are typically the smallest unit of work identified on the project workplan.
A standard is required approach or way of doing some type of work, for conducting an activity or task
Actual Cost (AC) is a part of “Earned Value” calculations
You typically want to get a final "go / no go" decision from your sponsor before you proceed to implementation on your project
Alignment means that every organization and every person is trying to move the company in the same direction and toward a common vision.
The following techniques can be used at a project level or activity level, or for any sized work in-between.
A portfolio will typically be the umbrella structure over a group of related or unrelated work.
Even though all projects are unique, some projects are very close to others.
A facilitated session is used when you are trying to gather requirements from many people who may or may not have common roles and experiences.
Any portfolio management process needs to be sponsored by some manager in the organization.
Your Facilities Department is typically responsible for the physical safety and security of the people and assets in the company.
In general, the analyst is responsible for ensuring that the requirements set forth by the business are captured and documented correctly before the solution is developed and implemented.
The term "application" or "business application" refers to the software systems that are used to automate otherwise manual business processes within your company.
This is the group of managers who are responsible for managing the portfolio of work.
If you could ask your client what their requirements were and they responded with everything they needed, the Analysis Phase would be easy.
Each application in your organization should have a primary application owner.
Fast track means that you look at activities that are normally done in sequence and assign them totally or partially in parallel.
The portfolio management team needs metrics to show how effectively they are running the portfolio
Float, or slack, refers to the difference between the earliest date an activity can start and the latest date by which the activity must start for the project to complete on time.
A Steering Committee is usually a group of high-level stakeholders that are responsible for providing guidance on overall strategic direction
Risk is usually associated with potential events that have a negative impact on the project.
Statistical Process Control (SPC) techniques provide a data-based, objective way to determine whether your project is producing products within acceptable levels of quality.
There is a fair amount of the IT development process that requires the creativity and skills of individual analysts, designers and programmers.
Most of the techniques associated with gathering requirements have to do with asking people questions and listening to the response.
There may be many ways to achieve your mission and arrive at your vision
There are six steps in the portfolio management process Foundation, Definition, Selection, Prioritization, Authorization and Activation.
One important area to inventory is your application system.
The purpose of stress testing is to see how the system behaves when it receives volume higher than the requirements.
Many applications have one or more users that are more sophisticated in their use of the system and have more need for information.
The Subject Matter Expert (SME) is a person with superior knowledge of a product, service, business function, process, etc
The Application Maintenance Manual (AMM) is the primary deliverable that is created by the development project team for turnover to the support team.
PRINCE2 is a project management methodology that was created for use by the government of the United Kingdom
People in the development world have a difficult time creating tangible metrics that tell how productive they are as individuals, teams or organizations.
Principles provide an organization with rules of behavior, and moral and ethical statements for how it will function.
The functional manager is the person that you report to on the organization chart.
If your team supports a number of applications and technologies, it makes sense to assign a primary support person to each application.
Although some companies may have internal suppliers, in the TenStep Project Management Process
There are three types of project relations organization structures – project-based, functionally-based and matrix-based.
After all the work has been selected, a prioritization process is used to determine which work will actually be funded and executed.
Each IT applications support group should have an inventory that specifies the computer platform that each application runs on.
A Future State Vision describes what your organization would look like in the future as it fulfills its mission.
Support requests should be prioritized to provide the support team a sense for the relative criticality of the need.
A Gantt chart is a bar chart that depicts activities as blocks over time.
There are many different asset groups that can be inventoried as a part of understanding what makes up your portfolio of work.
A Gap Analysis shows the differences between your Current State and your Future State Vision.
There may be external conditions or events that must occur for the project to be successful.
Goals are high-level, vague statements that describe what your organization is trying to achieve in the next one to three years
One way to classify requirements is based on the role of the person that would typically provide the requirements.
Roles refer to a person or group that performs a certain set of activities.
Process models are helpful when you are trying to describe complex processes and the relationships between them.
You should always strive to carefully set expectations and then meet those expectations.
Governance is the term used to describe the formal and informal set of processes that allow organizations to resolve conflicts, make decisions and ensure management decisions.
Your internal and external auditors are typically interested in making sure that you have good, sound security policies in place and that you are following them.
Process requirements describe how people interact with a product and how a product interacts with other products.
Group interviews can be used when you have multiple interviewees that have similar roles and knowledge.
There are six steps in the portfolio management process
Groupthink means that a group starts to mentally and perhaps subconsciously compromise on their views to obtain a consensus
Products are tangible items that an organization or a project team produces.
It is possible that the sponsor may not approve scope change requests during the project, but they may be viable requests that can be done at a later time.
This category contains the work that is designed to increase your capability and competitive advantage.
Your company may pay you a premium for carrying a beeper.
Product requirements describe the business needs in terms of the main deliverables or products that are produced.
You don't really know how efficient and effective your processes are unless you can compare yourself against other companies.
Best practices are the winning strategies, approaches, and processes that produce superior performance in an organization.
A guideline is a recommended (but not required) approach, parameter, etc. for conducting an activity or task.
A program is an umbrella organization over a group of related projects.
Root Cause Analysis
Implementation is one of the key elements in many projects and is actually one of the major phases in the traditional waterfall lifecycle
Big bang testing is a technique where you take all the unit-tested modules and tie them all together at once for a large integration test
The Program Manager is the person with authority to manage a program
Projects represent work that has a specific beginning and end, and results in the creation of one or more deliverables
Incremental testing means that you test two related programs together and make sure they are working correctly
All programs work on some set of inputs and create some set of outputs
There are three major types of communication on a project – mandatory, informational and marketing
Intangible benefits are positive results that are hard, perhaps even impossible, to quantify
Project audits are used to check compliance and ensure that project management processes are being used as they should
This calculation can be in terms of dollars or hours.
Run the Business
A Business Cases is used to determine whether or not it makes sense to perform a piece of work
When projects are large enough, it's possible to form an entire portfolio around the project team
Interface tests are specialized tests that look specifically at all the system interfaces, especially those from outside vendors or suppliers
In most companies, the result of the Business Planning Process is a Business Plan for the coming year
In the some processes, the Project Director role is given to the functional manager of the project manager
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a specialized international agency that promotes the development of precise standards to help ensure that products, services, and materials.
Used in this sense, gathering business requirements is the process of gathering all of the requirements associated with the project deliverables.
This is an Earned Value calculation. The Schedule Performance Index (SPI) is a ratio calculated by taking the EV (Earned Value) / PV (Planned Value).
The portfolio will be tracking projects as a basic feature of portfolio management
An issue is defined as a problem that will impede the progress of the project and cannot be totally resolved by the project manager and project team without outside help
This deliverable consolidates and finalizes all of the requirements information gathered up to this point, including any business models generated
One of the best known project management models is the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®), which is the standard put forward by the Project Management Institute (PMI)
There is a specific technique (or set of techniques) for more rapidly gaining a consensus from a group of individuals.
The Capability Maturity Model is a scale from 0ne through five that can be used to gauge how well your company or organization follows common and repeatable processes to get your work done.
Scope is the way that you describe the boundaries of the project
A Key Learning is notable information discovered while performing an activity, utilizing a tool, creating a deliverable, etc.
The money used to pay for different types of work can be classified separately from an accounting standpoint
The term key performance indicator (KPI) is used to indicate success targets
There are four major types of PMO models (with many variations in between)
The purpose of Scope Change Management is to protect the viability of the current, approved Project Definition and the current, approved business requirements
Sometimes on very large projects, the Project Sponsor does not feel comfortable making the scope change decisions alone
Some of the work that happens in the portfolio is not directly support (Support the Business) or growth oriented (Grow the Business)
Clients are the main individuals or groups that request and utilize the products and services your organization provides
This term refers to the process used to build and support the deliverables produced by the project
A concept that is related to a repository is the idea of a portal
If a project is large enough, the client may have a primary contact that is designated as the overall project manager for the client department
Coaches use their experience and knowledge to help others with immediate questions and problems
Security is an important part of the design of a solution, and it involves more than just setting up passwords
This contact may or may not be the same as the Application Business Owner
Projects are the way that most new work gets delivered
There are three major types of communication on a project – mandatory, informational and marketing
Project management defines the overall management and control processes for the project
Coaching skills can be learned, assuming a person has good experiences to begin with and has good communication skills
In general, the project manager is responsible for the overall success of the project
A code review allows one or more knowledgeable third parties to walk through program written by another person.
Some of the work in your organization is not directly related to your business, but is related instead to your people (and indirectly, of course, to your business)
Effective communication is vital to the overall success of a Project Management Office
A project phase is a major logical grouping of work on a project
Security testing is a set of system tests designed to ensure that your solution has the appropriate level of security built in
In the Analysis Phase, a Conceptual Systems Design is completed to aid in the transition from the business requirements to the technical design of the system
Status reports are used to share information about a project and to manage expectations
There are three major types of communication on a project – mandatory, informational and marketing
Constraints are limitations that are outside the control of the project team and need to be managed around
The project team consists of the full-time and part-time resources assigned to work on the deliverables of the project to help achieve the project objectives
A matrixes organization is one where people report to a specialized department and specialist are shared on projects when they are needed
Depending on your point of view, the Construct Phase is where the "rubber meets the road"
Prototyping is a relatively modern technique for gathering requirements and can work well with online developments like web solutions
Purchasing is the department that is usually responsible for vendor relationships
Many projects have one overall budget that includes all of the project labor costs, hardware/software costs, materials costs, etc
Many organizations rely heavily on meetings to share information and get representation on complicated, multi-organization initiatives
Methodologies are products and they need to be supported long-term like any other product in your company
Quality Assurance does not refer directly to specific deliverables. It refers to the process used to create the deliverables
This is a simple model and could be the starting point for determining whether a project makes sense
In many cases, it makes sense to have an outside party come in to evaluate the project management processes being utilized.
This is the ratio of taking the EV (EARNED VALUE) / AC (ACTUAL COST).
Services-Products are tangible items that the organization produces
A milestone is a scheduling event that signifies the completion of a major deliverable or a set of related deliverables.
The Cost Variance gives you a sense for how you are doing against the budget, and is calculated as EV (EARNED VALUE) – AC (ACTUAL COST).
If one of the major roles of the PMO is to perform quality assurance audits on projects within your organization, then an overall Quality Assurance Specialist should be named
A Service Level Agreement (SLA) is a negotiated agreement that specifies the type of work, quality level, parties involved
Critical path refers to the sequence of activities that must be completed on schedule for the entire project to be completed on schedule
The Mission Statement describes what the organization does, how it is done, and for whom
Critical success factors (CSF) indicate something very important to measure as it relates to the success of your business
If your job requires you to work outside the regular 9:00-5:00 hours
On a large project, quality management could take up a large amount of project management time
Six Sigma refers to a philosophy, goal, or methodology used to reduce waste and improve the quality, cost and time performance of any business
Cross training refers to the time spent working with another person to understand specific support requirements and the support environment
Skills are the personal traits or internal knowledge that a person uses to perform the responsibilities within his or her role.
If you think of a financial portfolio, you have your underlying assets, including stocks, bonds, securities, gold, etc. These assets are your actual portfolio.
There is no question that you can gather better, and perhaps more accurate, requirements when you have personal contact.
Culture basically describes "how you do things around here."
Regression testing is a technique that can be used in a number of the acceptance tests and system tests
A Skills inventory is a snapshot of every person in your organization, the skills that they have today and some type how strong each person is in each skill
The repository is the facility that contains all of the information you wish to store and share with others
A Current State Assessment describes how your organization functions and behaves today
Small Projects- The definition of small projects covers many types of work. In most companies, these small projects are not viewed as “projects” at all
The repository Librarian is responsible for the accuracy, viability and ease of use of the repository.
Monte Carlo modeling is a technique for managing risks.
A customer is the person or group that is the direct beneficiary of a project or service or the people for whom the project is being undertaken
You may hear the term “dashboard” to refer to the consolidated status report that is provided to your management team
Gathering requirements requires more than just talking to people, writing down their ideas and then building a solution
The Requirements Management Plan describes how you will manage your projects' requirements throughout the project
The purpose of this test is to validate that the system meets all business requirements
Data can be stored in one of two states – structured and unstructured. Structured data refers to information that is stored in a repetitive and organized format
This test is specialized for those applications that are running on multiple sites that need to communicate with each other
Large projects typically have a specialist called a Data Analyst (DA) that works on designing the data stores
Data conversion refers to work required to change data from one format to another.
This is a very popular financial model and looks at cost benefit from the perspective of the financial return you gain from any investment of resources on a yearly basis
The data model created in the Analysis Phase is the source for a data dictionary that is defined for the data stores. The data dictionary contains metadata, or "data about the data"
An environment and culture that promotes reuse can offer tremendous value to your company
Support is work that has to be done to keep your current production processes working effectively and reliably
Net Present Value is a way to evaluate the value of a project. It si more sophisticated than a simple cost/benefit analysis because it takes into account the relative valu of money over time.
Risk refers to future conditions or circumstances that exist outside of the control of the project team that will have an adverse impact on the project if they occur.
A data flow diagram shows logical relationships between data at a high level.
A reactive project manager tries to resolve issues when they occur. A proactive project manager tries to resolve potential problems before they occur.
Support analyst (Primary and back up)-This term is a role used to describe the person or persons
In addition to process modeling, there is another type of modeling that may be needed on large, complex projects – data modeling
There are five general responses to address any project risks that need to be managed
One way to calculate the financial results of an interdependency of risk is to use a decision tree
There are six steps in the portfolio management process (as defined in www.PortfolioStep.com) – Foundation, Definition, Selection, Prioritization, Authorization and Activation
A deliverable is any tangible outcome that is produced by a project. These can be documents, plans, computer systems, buildings, aircraft, etc
Deliverable reviews, or walkthroughs, can be applied to many deliverables produced by the project
Support Dispatcher- The main purpose of the Dispatcher is to assign problem tickets and problem requests within the group
Tangible benefits are those where you can easily tie a specific numeric value
The Technical Systems Design is a deliverable that provides the specific technical information needed to construct a solution
A technique is a well-defined procedure or way of doing something used to accomplish a specific activity or task.
Templates are pre- existing forms that include standard formats
The Testing Plan is where you define the specific details for how you will per your project
Tiers- Building a software application in tiers allows you to separate major functions into separate and standalone areas
Tolerances- When you manage the workplan and budget, you usually do not need to be hit every estimate to the minute or to the dollar
Timeboxing-In a perfect world, project completion dates would be derived based on the to be amount of work done and the number of resources available
TCO allows you to estimate the entire costs associated with a project or product over the lifetime of the product
Traceability refers to the ability to trace, or track, requirements throughout the lifecycle and into the final solution
Although there are many ways to pass knowledge from one person to others
Training Strategy- The purpose of the Training Strategy is to define the overall context for training
Keep the following techniques in mind when building instructor-led training
Training Testing- In most cases, the first time you deploy training is actually in a live environment with real users. However, if possible you should try to test out the material first
Triple constraint- At the end of the upfront definition and planning process of your project
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a methodology, especially those that use object oriented techniques
A unit test review is similar to the code review in that the owner explains how he/she has tested the code and what the results are
Value Propositions are short documents that describe the costs and benefits of implementing an idea
The vision describes a state that the organization is striving to achieve in the future
You can have a solution that meets all the features and functions asked
In white box testing, you look at the structure of the internal software code and try to create test data that will exercise all of the code (or as much of the code as possible)
Use cases are an alternative technique used to document requirements
The WBS is a technique for looking at the project at a high level and subsequently breaking the work into smaller and smaller pieces
The user view is the way the data is presented to external parties
On an ongoing basis, usually monthly, the Portfolio Manager and senior leaders should get together for a planning session
The purpose of the User’s Manual is to provide the end user with all the information they will need to use the solution
Users are the people who will actually use the deliverables of the project
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EL DIRECTOR DE PROYECTOS PRACTICO -
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El Director de Proyectos Práctico, Project Management for Small Projects.
Un libro pensado en el líder de proyectos empírico que salió ganador de la rifa del tigre. Pues ya tiene la responsabilidad de un proyecto, pero que no sabe ni por donde empezar. Necesita una receta ABC para seguir.
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COPYRIGHT © 2007-2012 por Hector Olvera Padilla 1853071. Reproduction in whole or in part, or translation without written permission is prohibited. "PMP®", "PMBOK®", and "PMI®" are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc.